1960’s Trend:

1960's trend

1990’s Trend:

1990's trend

2000’s Trend:

2000's trend

The trend and competency of testing is changing. Testers are now required to be more technical and process oriented. Testing now is not only limited just to find bugs but has a wider scope and is required right from the beginning of the project when the requirements are not even finalized.

Since testing is also standardized. Just like development of software has a lifecycle, Testing too has a lifecycle. In the subsequent sections, I will be discussing about what a life cycle is and how that is related to software testing and will try to elaborate it.


Phases of STLC

phases of STLC

Requirement analysis

Requirement Analysis

During this phase of STLC, analyse and study the requirements. Have brain storming   sessions with other teams and try to find out whether the requirements are testable or not. This phase helps to identify the scope of the testing. If any feature is not testable, communicate it during this phase so that the mitigation strategy can be planned.


  • Identify types of tests to be performed.
  • Gather details about testing priorities and focus.
  • Prepare Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM).
  • Identify test environment details where testing is supposed to be carried out.
  • Automation feasibility analysis (if required).


  • Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM).
  • Automation feasibility report. (if applicable)


Test planning

test planning

In practical scenarios, Test planning is the first step of the testing process. In this phase we identify the activities and resources which would help to meet the testing objectives. During planning we also try to identify the metrics, the method of gathering and tracking those metrics.


  • Preparation of test plan/strategy document for various types of testing
  • Test tool selection
  • Test effort estimation
  • Resource planning and determining roles and responsibilities.
  • Training requirement


  • Test plan /strategy document.
  • Effort estimation document.


Test design

test design

In this phase various black-box and white-box test design techniques are used to design the test cases for testing, testers start writing test cases by following those design techniques, if automation testing needs to be done then automation scripts also needs to written in this phase.


  • Create test cases, automation scripts (if applicable)
  • Review and baseline test cases and scripts
  • Create test data (If Test Environment is available)


  • Test cases/scripts
  • Test data


Test environment setup

Test environment

This is the phase of STLC where testing team write down the detailed test cases. Along with test cases testing team also prepare the test data if any required for testing. Once the test cases are ready then these test cases are reviewed by peer members or QA lead.


  • Understand the required architecture, environment set-up and prepare hardware and software requirement list for the Test Environment.
  • Setup test Environment and test data
  • Perform smoke test on the build


  • Environment ready with test data set up
  • Smoke Test Results.


Test execution

Test Execution

As the name suggests, this is the Software Testing Life Cycle phase where the actual execution takes place. But before you start your execution, make sure that your entry criterion is met. Execute the test cases, log defects in case of any discrepancy. Simultaneously fill your traceability metrics to track your progress.


  • Execute tests as per plan
  • Document test results, and log defects for failed cases
  • Map defects to test cases in RTM
  • Retest the defect fixes
  • Track the defects to closure


  • Completed RTM with execution status
  • Test cases updated with results
  • Defect reports


Test reporting

Test Reporting

Depending on your project and stakeholders choice, you can decide on reporting whether you want to send out a daily report of weekly report etc. There are different types of reports (DSR – Daily status report, WSR – Weekly status reports) which you can send, but the important point is, the content of the report changes and depends upon whom you are sending your reports.


  • Evaluate cycle completion criteria based on Time, Test coverage, Cost, Software, Critical Business Objectives, Quality
  • Prepare test metrics based on the above parameters.
  • Document the learning out of the project
  • Prepare Test closure report
  • Qualitative and quantitative reporting of quality of the work product to the customer.
  • Test result analysis to find out the defect distribution by type and severity.


  • Test Closure report
  • Test metrics

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